The Space-Time Concept of the Special and General Theory of Relativity

Georgi Stankov, May 28, 2017

In 1905, Einstein realized that Lorentz transformations were not artificial presentations of the local space and time of electromagnetic systems, but were fundamentally linked to our very understanding of space-time. While the principle of relativity as expressed by the Lorentz factor is still believed to be of purely theoretical character, the constant speed of light c is a well-established fact.

In the first step, Einstein refuted the principle of simultaneity inherited from classical mechanics and substituted it with the principle of relative simultaneity. This “new“ insight was a delayed discovery. Since Galilei, who first discovered and measured gravitation and thus founded modern physics, it took more than three centuries to realize this simple fact, although the relativity of space (position) and time has been a central theme of philosophy since antiquity.

The principle of relativity is a consequence of the properties of space-time. As space-time is closed, we can arbitrarily select any system as a system of reference and compare any other system to it according to the principle of circular argument. This is how the SI system and its units were introduced in physics, however without understanding this fundamental theoretical fact.

Read hereWhy Space-Time = Energy Has Only Two Dimensions (Constituents) – Space and Time (Full Article)

This means that there is no “absolute space” and “time”, as Newton introduced in classical mechanics, but only specific magnitudes (relationships) of the two constituents of space-time = energy for each system and level. This is a consequence of the inhomogeneity (discreteness) as another fundamental property of space-time (see Axiomatics).

The principle of simultaneity reflects the open character of the systems of space-time as U-sets – any local interaction is part of the total energy exchange in the universe (= primary term). In the Axiomatics I have proved that all systems of All-That-Is are U-sets and contain themselves and the Whole as an element. The principle of simultaneity is thus an intuitive, albeit unprocessed, notion in physics that space-time is a unity which is the cognitive foundation in the new Theory of Science of the Universal Law. It proves that all known particular physical laws are derivations and manifestations of one law of nature.

Therefore, it is not a coincidence that when Einstein discovered this principle in physics, all avantgarde movements in Europe were discovering the principle of “simultanéité” in arts and poetry (see volume IV). Today, we speak of globalization and regard the earth as a village. Tomorrow, if we survive, we shall expand this feeling to the universe by implementing the theory of the Universal Law. This is the anticipated evolution of human consciousness, before it becomes an active part of the universal consciousness of space-time (1)

The two postulates of the theory of relativity are well known.

  •  The first one is the principle of relativity which says that there is no preferential inertial reference frame: natural law(s) is (are) the same in all inertial systems.
  • The second postulate concerns the principle of the constant speed of light. The speed of light c in vacuum is constant in any inertial reference frame and does not depend on the movement of the object, or alternatively: each observer measures the same value for the speed of light in vacuum.

This is the traditional presentation of Einstein’s postulates, which one can find in numerous textbooks on physics and the theory of relativity.

It is, indeed, amazing that until now nobody has noticed the intrinsic paradox between the two postulates. This is a classic example of the cognitive blindness of modern physics with respect to its basic concepts. The paradox emerges from the use of the concept “inertial reference frame“. This term is introduced in conjunction with the law of inertia.

This law can only distinguish between a uniform motion (a = 0) and a motion with acceleration (a > 0). Per definition, all inertial reference frames should move uniformly or stay at rest otherwise the first law is not valid.

Does this mean that the principle of relativity does not hold in accelerated systems? Obviously not, for exactly this contradiction ought to be eliminated by Einstein’s second postulate. It says that the speed of light remains the same, independently of the movement of the observer. This postulate does not discriminate between a uniform motion and a motion with acceleration.

From this, it is cogent that there is a fundamental paradox between the first and second postulate of the special theory of relativity.

How can we avoid this paradox? This paradox is actually eliminated in the general theory of relativity, which is based on the principle of equivalence:

“a homogenous gravitational field is completely equivalent to a uniformly accelerated reference frame.“(2)

This principle acknowledges the simple fact that there are no real inertial reference frames. For this reason, in the special theory of relativity, Einstein substitutes the concept of the inertial reference frame which is an object of thought without a physical correlate with the real reference frames – the local gravitational potential glocal = LRCG. For instance, the gravitation of the earth is such a real reference frame. It is equivalent to an accelerated system, for example, to a rocket with the same acceleration as g, but launched in the opposite direction. This is a frequent example, with which the principle of equivalence is explained in conventional textbooks on physics.

There are two major cognitive aspects of this principle that should be elaborated. Firstly, there are infinite real reference frames because there are infinite celestial objects in space-time with specific gravitational fields or potentials (LRC, long-range correlations). Secondly, this principle holds only in motions with uniform acceleration and does not consider motions with changing acceleration. In the latter case, the motion is regarded as consisting of infinite small segments of uniform acceleration.

As we see, the infinity of real reference frames is basic to the principle of equivalence. It is an intuitive notion of the infinity of space-time. This is also evident from the name of this principle which is an intuitive, albeit unconscious, perception of the principle of last equivalence which is the first and only a priory axiom of the new Axiomatics of the Universal Law.

Indeed, Einstein’s idea of equivalence reflects the principle of last equivalence of our Axiomatics when applied to the parts as the principle of circular argument. Any definition of a mathematical equivalence is based on this principle. This has not been understood in theoretical mathematics as embodied in its foundation crisis which I first resolved in 1995 and thus saved modern science from this theoretical peril that hang like the sword of Damocles over the mesh heads of all scientists, even though they preferred to close their eyes and neglect this peril for many decades.

We come to an important conclusion:

The principle of equivalence of the general theory of relativity is an application of the principle of circular argument. It also consists of building equivalences and making comparisons. This is the only objective of this discipline and of physics as a whole.

Evidently, when the theory of relativity is taken to its logical end (which Einstein obviously failed to do), it leads to the rejection of the law of inertia. This is inevitable in the light of the new Axiomatics. However, this law has a rational core that should be spelled out for the sake of objectivity.

From a mathematical point of view, Newton’s first law of inertia is a special case (borderline case) of the second law: F = ma; if a = 0, then the resultant force is zero F=0 and we have the condition of the first law. The law of inertia holds only in reference frames free of forces, that is, in empty space. However, there is no empty space – space-time is continuous. As space-time is equivalent to energy, there is no place in All-That-Is that is free of forces and where the law of inertia could be valid.

What is the epistemological background of this law in the light of the new Axiomatics? Very simple! The Universal Law departs from the reciprocity of space and time, where space-time (energy) is proportional to time: E ≈ f. If time approaches zero f → 0, then space-time will also approach zero: E ≈ f → 0. In this case, space will approach infinity [space] →∞. This infinite space will be homogeneous because its discreteness is a function of time f : discreteness = f → 0.

The magnitude of such an abstract space can be formally presented by means of straight lines (paths) within geometry because the radius of this hypothetical rotation will be infinite: r → 0. Under these boundary conditions, space-time will acquire the properties attributed to empty Euclidean space, as they are embodied in the law of inertia.

From this we conclude:

The law of inertia is a mathematical abstraction (object of thought) that describes the hypothetical boundary conditions of space-time:

when E ≈  f = discreteness → 0, then

[space] → ∞ = homogeneous, empty space =

= Euclidean space (straight lines) 

The actual theory of relativity is an application of Lorentz transformations of electromagnetism, with which the space-time of all material objects is mathematically assessed, while at the same time photon space-time is regarded as an empty, homogeneous entity. This mathematical presentation of space-time and its abstract quantities, such as mass and momentum, is called “relativistic”. Hence the terms: relativistic energy, relativistic mass and relativistic momentum.

These quantities are built within mathematics according to the principle of circular argument by selecting photon space-time as the initial reference frame without comprehending the theoretical implications of this fundamental decision. This is a leitmotif of all my writings on the Universal Law.

Read alsoWhy Space-Time = Energy Has Only Two Dimensions (Constituents) – Space and Time (Full Article)

When FitzGerald length contraction and Lorentz time dilution are expressed within the theory of relativity, we immediately recognize that the Lorentz factor γ-1 is another mathematical presentation (iteration) of Kolmogoroff‟s probability set (see previous publication):

 tR/t = L/LR=  γ-1 = √(1-v2/c2 ) =  0≤SP(A)≤1

 when v → 0, then  γ-1   1,

 when v c, then  γ-1   0,

In the above equation  tR is the rest time between two events (Note: all events are action potentials), also called “local” or “own time”, that is measured in a system at rest; t is the diluted time measured in an accelerated reference system. Analogously, LR is the length of a system at rest, and L is its contracted length under acceleration.

The Lorentz factor  γ-1 assesses the relativistic change of space and time, that is, of the space-time of the systems in motion. Recall that all systems are in incessant motion. This is also the basic conclusion of the theory of relativity, namely, that all objects are in relative motion. From the above equation, it becomes evident that:

the Lorentz factor gives the physical probability space:

 γ-1 =  0≤SP(A)≤1

This is a fundamental conclusion of the new Axiomatics that rationalizes the theory of relativity to applied statistics of space-time.

The probability set of all space-time events, being action potentials, is set in the Lorentz transformations in relation to the LRC of photon space-time:

LRC= UU =  c= [2d-space-time].

When we substitute conventional time t with time f = 1/t in the above equations we obtain the Universal Equation as a rule of three (see equation (38-5) in Axiomatics):

E1/E2 = f1/f2 = [1d-space]2 / [1d-space]1  =

tR/t = L/LR=  γ-1 = √(1-v2/c2 )K1,2 = SP(A)

This is the whole theoretical background of Einstein‟s theory of relativity – be it special or general. It is a partial and inconsistent intuitive perception of the Universal Law within mathematics. After being revised, it is integrated into the new Axiomatics. In this way we eliminate this discipline as a distinct area of physical knowledge.

For this purpose I shall explain in the next publication the two basic terms of the theory of relativity, rest mass and relativistic mass, in terms of the new Axiomatics, as their wrong conventional interpretation is the main source of the cognitive malaise which afflicts physics today.


1. The comprehension and active implementation of the theory of the Universal Law is not only a highly intellectual act – it is decisively determined by the mediality of the individual. The latter depends exclusively on the age of the soul of each individual. At present, human mediality is on the verge of an evolutionary jump, which will profoundly change human consciousness. However, only old souls, at the end of their incarnation cycle, will profit from this evolutionary jump, which represents a profound energetic transformation of the human individual. This process, known as the light body process, LBP, which is now running at high speed, has no direct impact on the majority of young souls that populate the earth at present. It will only change their “weltanschauung”. I have dedicated a special book on this subject of human Gnosis “The Evolutionary Leap of Mankind“.

2. Textbook on Physics. PA Tipler, p. 1132. (This reference is from an earlier edition of this textbook and the page numbers may have changed in this latest edition.)

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