**Georgi Stankov, May 26, 2017**

The partial correction and further development of Newtonian mechanics was done by *Einstein* – first, in the **special theory of relativity** and then in the **general theory of relativity**. The latter is the basis of modern cosmology. However, the origins of the theory of relativity were laid in **electromagnetism** and this concept is meaningless from an epistemological point of view without considering the concept of **ether**.

The main achievements in electromagnetism (*Maxwell*, *Lorentz*) are based on the firm belief that ether exists and is another form of substance, which fills empty Euclidean space, that is, it should substitute empty space. The further development of the ether concept, leading to its refutation, has furnished the two basic ideas of the theory of relativity:

**1.** Light has a constant finite velocity for all observers;

** 2.** The ether, which has been regarded as an invisible elastic matter, substance, or continuum, where light is propagated, cannot fulfill the expectations attributed to the absolute, static Euclidean space of mechanics (see previous publication). Because of this, there is no possibility of proving the **principle of simultaneity** that has been considered valid in classical mechanics. Instead, it has been found that all phenomena appear to be relative for any observer with respect to space and time.

It was Einstein’s accidental stroke of genius to realize the full importance of this simple fact. Before we proceed with Einstein’s theory of relativity and explain why he failed to discover the **“****universal field equation”** (read here), we must first discuss the precursors of the concept of relativity in electromagnetism.

From a cognitive point of view, electromagnetism has always been a **dualistic** theory. At the time when *Huygens* established the electromagnetic wave theory, Newton already supported the concept of particles. The dispute between these two opposite views was very stimulating and triggered the first measurements of the *speed of light*. As early as 1676, *Römer* was able to measure the speed of light from astronomic observations with an astounding degree of precision (*c* = 299 792 *km/s*).

*Bradley* discovered in 1727 another effect of the finite speed of light, namely, that all fixed stars perform an annual rotation due to the revolution of the earth around the sun. Since *Foucault* (1865), we know that the speed of light in air is greater than its speed in any other medium. This is the first confirmation of the maximal finite speed of light in “empty space“.

The major objective of electromagnetism, which evolved in the meantime into a separate discipline beside classical mechanics, was to find an explanation for the propagation of light in empty space as introduced by Newton in mechanics. If light were a transversal wave, as most experiments indicated, then it could only be propagated in an elastic medium, as the **theory of optics** preached at that time by *Fresnel *who was a deeply spiritual person and thus a great exception as a Frenchman.

These considerations led to the development of the **ether concept**. This concept is of central theoretical importance, for it is a synonym for the primary term. I have shown in Volume II, chapter 3.2 that the **General continuum law** is the differential form of the Universal Law in elastic medium, from which the **classical wave equation** (Volume II chapter 4.5), **Maxwell’s four equations of electromagnetism** (Vol II, chapter 6.13) and **Schrödinger’s wave equation of quantum mechanics** (Vol II, chapter 7.2) have been derived within mathematics.

The ether concept was the most elaborated intuitive perception of the primary term prior to the discovery of the Universal Law. Its refutation on the basis of the **Michelson-Morley experiment** in 1887 was a consequence of the failure of the ether concept to exclude all false properties attributed to the primary term since the introduction of Euclidean space in classical mechanics. The Michelson-Morley experiment embodied the vicious circle of empirical agnosticism, to which physics had been subjected before the Universal Law was discovered and proved to be true in physics and bio-science in 1994-1995.

The projection of the properties of Euclidean space to ether led to the following cognitive outlook of electromagnetism:

- ether was a real, absolute reference system of material character analogous to absolute, abstract Euclidean space as introduced by Newton.
- Therefore, ether was defined as a static, that is,
**“****immovable”**(Newton) elastic medium that filled the empty space of mechanics. - In this medium, light was propagated with the speed of
*c*. - All other motions could be set in relation to this real immovable reference system of absolute character.

The objective of the ether hypothesis was not only to provide a logical explanation for electromagnetism from a cognitive point of view, but also to eliminate the empty Euclidean space of classical mechanics that caused numerous theoretical problems to the physicists at that time which they could not reconcile with empirical evidence. The aim of Michelson-Morley experiment was to prove this hypothesis.

Before I discuss its results, I shall explain why this hypothesis, which was on the right track, must be refuted from a theoretical point of view.

The ether concept incorporates the dualistic view in optics and classical mechanics, whereby medium and waves are considered as two distinct entities (**N-sets**). This is the classical epistemological flaw one regularly encounters in conventional physics.

N-set is a mathematical or any other set of elements that excludes itself as an element. For instance the vacuum, the void, is an N-set as it contains, according to current failed physics, all the elementary particles which have energy and mass, i.e. they are something, while the void is nothing. Another example of an N-set is the set of all “2” numbers that excludes itself as an element as it is one (1) set. All rational numbers are thus N-sets as they exclude the continuum as a continuous entity, while all **transcendental numbers** are U-sets that contain themselves and the whole, the continuum, as an element.

However, humanity has failed so far to develop a transcendental mathematics. With the discovery of the Universal Law I paved the way for the development of such advanced mathematics that properly assesses All-That-Is. I have discussed these theoretical problems of mathematics in Volume I and Volume II in detail and resolved them while abolishing the foundation crisis of mathematics in 1995.

For this reason physics has made a veritable mental salto mortale (full somersault) by declaring the vacuum to be “energy-rich”, from which the elementary particles are created according to certain symmetry rules. This is another epic idiocy (idio) of the standard model of physics.

For the first time in the new Axiomatics, all real systems and levels of space-time are regarded as **U-sets** that contain themselves and the Whole = energy = space-time = the primary term as an element. They can only be distinguished in the human mind by means of mathematics, but not in real terms. This is a recurrent motif of the entire new theory of science of the Universal Law.

When we apply this fundamental axiomatic knowledge to ether, we must conclude that there is no possibility of distinguishing between motion as wave and medium. I have shown in Volume II that the **wave equation** is derived by considering the rotation of the particles in the medium.

In the new Axiomatics, **motion** is a synonym for the **primary term** = space-time = the (elastic) **continuum** (*principle of last equivalence*). The definition of its basic quantity, *velocity*, is axiomatically derived from it as one-dimensional space-time within mathematics (Axiomatics, point 21.). Therefore, we can write the following equivalence with respect to ether:

**ether as medium = continuum = photon space-time = **

**= c = c ^{2} = LRC = c^{n} = constant **

This equation simplifies our understanding of the concept of ether and relativity to an extraordinary extent. It says that [1*d-space-time*] is constant for each level of space-time – for example, the constant speed of light is a specific [1*d-space-time*] quantity of the constant photon space-time. However, constant space-time is in incessant motion – constancy of space-time and its motion do not exclude each other, but are equivalent, complimentary aspects of the primary term.

Bearing this in mind, it is easy to understand why the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment has led to the refutation of the ether concept, embodying the cognitive flaws of Newtonian mechanics, and at the same time confirmed the nature of space-time as defined in the new Axiomatics.

The ether hypothesis tested by this experiment can be summarized as follows:

if the ether were a real, immovable system of reference, the measurement of the speed of light in a moving (rotating) system, such as the earth, would give different magnitudes for *c*, depending on whether the light is moving with the earth’s rotation or in the opposite direction.

However, neither Michelson nor Morley could find any change of *c* with respect to the earth’s rotation. This correct result on the constancy of space-time, as manifested by the velocity *c* of the photon level, has led to the absolutely wrong conclusion that the earth is “immovable with respect to ether“.

However, the earth itself is a rotating system – it revolves around its axis, around the sun and so on (superimposed rotation). Therefore, this gravitational system cannot be immovable in absolute terms.

As the speed of light *c* remains constant, the same must hold for the ether. It cannot be an immovable entity – an absolute reference system at rest, as expected in terms of Euclidean space.

Unfortunately, instead of rejecting the empty space of classical mechanics and modifying the ether concept, the consequence of the Michelson-Morley experiment was **the refutation of the ether, that is, of photon space-time**, as a real level and its substitution with the concept of the **void (vacuum)**, where *c-*dependent **“****actions at a distance”** are observed as *long-range correlations* (*LRC*), which are mediated through hypothetical fields such as electromagnetic and gravitational fields.

This experimental interpretation marks one of the darkest periods of modern physics, pushing this discipline in entirely the wrong direction for more than a century, until the Universal Law was finally discovered in 1995 and all known partial physical laws were integrated by this law as its specific mathematical applications.

The interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment led to the development of the **special theory of** **relativity**.** **In fact, Einstein learned about the Michelson-Morley experiment only after he had already established the special theory of relativity. The interpretation of the theory of relativity in terms of this experiment is *a posteriori* adaptation of historical facts to serve human needs for linear time chronology.

The rejection of ether has cemented the dogma that space-time is empty and homogeneous, where photons, being particles with the energy ** E=h f,** but having no mass (?), propagate with the speed of light, which is utter nonsense as I have proved beyond any doubt. The dogma that particles move in vacuum is based on the assumption that

**N-sets**exist and is thus a cardinal epistemological flaw in physics.

Departing from the nature of space-time, I exclude all scientific concepts that are N-sets. In this way I eliminate all paradoxes of science that culminate in the famous **continuum hypothesis** of mathematics.

The origins of the theory of relativity were laid in electromagnetism when it became obvious that **space** **and time were** **two canonically conjugated constituents of space-time that behave reciprocally**.

**Read here: Why Space-Time = Energy Has Only Two Dimensions (Constituents) – Space and Time (Full Article)**

This reciprocity is an aspect of the constancy of space-time as manifested by the parts:

as **[ space-time] = constant = 1**, then

**[**

*space*] = 1/*[time*] =

**1/f**.This follows from the **primary axiom**. The knowledge of the actual reciprocity of space and time is vested in the historical empirical observation that the quotient of *electron area (charge*) and *mass*

*e/m _{e} = SP(A)_{e }/SP(A)_{m }*= 0≤

*SP(A)*≤1

is decreasing with growing velocity v = [1*d-space-time*] = *E*.

Within the new Axiomatics, this phenomenon can be immediately solved. As mass is a space-time relationship built in an abstract way when the energy (space-time) of a system, such as the electron, increases relativistically, its space-time relationship, that is, mass, will also increase with respect to the constant reference unit of 1 *kg*.

This phenomenon was interpreted somewhat clumsy by **Lorentz** who postulated that the spherical form of the electron flattened in the direction of its movement, so that the mass increased in terms of density. He considered** FitzGerald’s interpretation** of **Michelson-Morley experiment** – it suggested that the earth contracted in the direction of its revolution. This would have explained why Michelson and Morley did not find any difference in* c* depending on the earth’s motion.

In this experiment, the location of the observer was linked to the earth or rather he was part of the earth. For this reason the observer was not in a position to determine the relative contraction of the earth. If the observer had been placed outside the earth, that is, in photon space-time, he would have measured a relative contraction of the earth in the direction of rotation.

*FitzGerald* proposed a simple** factor of proportionality**, with which this **length contraction** could be calculated:

**γ ^{-1} = √(1-v^{2}/c^{2} ) = √(c^{2} – v^{2})/c^{2 }**=

**√(dLRC/LRC**_{p}) =**= √(SP(A) _{relative}/SP(A)_{reference}) =**

**= [1 d-space-time]_{rel}/[1d-space-time]_{ref }**=

**0≤**

*SP(A)*≤1I call this factor in the new theory of the Universal Law the **“****proportionality factor of Lorentz transformations”**, or simply the **Lorentz factor**, because it is basic to his relativistic presentation of space and time in electromagnetism.

The above equation shows that:

The **Lorentz factor** **γ ^{-1}** is an iterative mathematical presentation of

**Kolmogoroff’s probability set**

**0≤**as defined according to the

*SP(A)*≤1*principle of circular argument*within mathematics. The initial system of reference is

**photon space-time**as expressed by the

*LRC*=**, to which the relativistic change of space-time of the systems**

*c*^{2}*dLRC*is set in relation.

It is indeed amazing that neither Lorentz, nor Einstein or any other physicist after them has comprehended this simple methodological fact, namely that all mathematical equations in the theory of relativity are actually presentations of the probability set **0≤ SP(A)≤1 **in

**statistics**, while the latter is another variation of the

**continuum set**in mathematics. I have discussed this theoretical aspect in detail in Volume I and also in Volume II. In my next article I will refer one more time to the true essence of the theory of relativity as applied statistics to space-time.

*Lorentz* derived this factor from **FitzGerald’s length contraction** and applied it to **time dilution**. He was the first to speak of the “local time” and “local space” of objects that change in a relativistic manner in the direction of movement.

In terms of the ether hypothesis, FitzGerald’s length contraction and Lorentz time dilution indicate that when space and time are measured in moving objects, they will have different magnitudes compared to those measured in relation to absolute immovable ether, that is, to the space-time magnitudes measured in relation to themselves from a static point of view (building of the **certain event** within mathematics).

In this way, the relativity of space and time, which is objectively observed and assessed by the Lorentz factor, has given birth to the theory of relativity.

In this process, both the absolute unchangeable space of classical mechanics and the concept of ether in electromagnetism have been abolished. They have been substituted by a hermaphrodite concept of space-time in the theory of relativity which is generally accepted today. It combines the emptiness and homogeneity of Euclidean space as vacuum (void) with the reciprocal behaviour of its constituents as assessed by the Lorentz factor in the electromagnetic theory of relativity.

Furthermore, the **general theory of relativity** postulates that this space-time is “bent“ (curved) by gravitation. There is, however, no explanation as to how this energy interaction is mediated in the void, or by the void, because neither classical mechanics, nor Einstein’s general theory of relativity, proposes any theory of gravitation. This fact demonstrates the provisional character of Einstein’s theory of relativity.

The **mechanism of gravitation** was explained for the first time stringently in the new theory of the Universal Law by employing all relevant knowledge and experimental data from classical mechanics, electromagnetism, theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.

**Read here: The Mechanism of Gravitation – for the First Time Explained**

Before the discovery of the Universal Law, the old physics was unable to integrate gravitation with the other three fundamental forces (read here). This deficiency of the standard model is generally recognized by all theoreticians, which explains why more than 50% of all theoretical physicists nowadays work on improving the standard model in their research activities as they officially write on their websites.

This stark fact clearly shows how incomplete and provisional this science has been from its inception to the present day and that is why it is incomprehensible to me why the physicists exhibit such a pathological, fear-driven resistance to the popularisation of the new theory of the Universal Law in the last two decades since Volume I on physics and mathematics was first published in the summer of 1997.

** **