**Georgi Stankov, May 20, 2017**

As already mentioned (here, here and here), the “**big bang“ hypothesis** of the standard model of cosmology is based on two pillars:

- the
**cosmic background radiation (CBR)**and - the
**expansion of the universe**as assessed by**Hubble’s law**.

If these pillars can be interpreted in a different way, for instance, by the Universal Law, then the standard model must be refuted.

In the previous article, I have explained how the idea of an expanding universe has evolved in cosmology, namely, from the one-sided perception of the vertical energy exchange between matter and photon space-time. In this article I shall discuss the interpretational flaws of CBR in modern cosmology.

The experimental confirmation of the CBR, as predicted by *Gamov* on the basis of **Friedmann’s model** and coincidentally discovered by *Penzias* and *Wilson* in the sixties, has evoked the mistaken conviction among cosmologists that the theoretical assumptions of the standard model of cosmology hold true. The key assumption of this model is that, from the very beginning, the universe has been dominated by an extremely hot *blackbody radiation* (hot photon space-time) that has cooled down during the adiabatic expansion of the universe to the present temperature of about 3K – hence the term **3K-CBR**.

The prediction of 3K-CBR on the basis of wrong assumptions and its subsequent discovery is a curiosity that will certainly enjoy an outstanding place in the future gallery of scientific blunders. The traditional interpretation of the CBR as a consequence of the expansion of the universe will be now rejected.

I have shown in Volume II, chapter 5.5 that the **CBR-constant** which determines the relationship between the temperature of the material body and the frequency of the emitted photons **_{ }f_{max} = K_{CBR} × T **(see volume II, equation (82) and previous article) depends only on the

*speed of light c*and the

**proportionality constant**

**B**of

**Wien’s displacement law**:

** K_{CBR }= c/B**.

The constant B is one-dimensional space-time of a novel thermodynamic level of matter that has not been realized so far (see Volume II, chapter 5.5, equation (81a)).

In the view of traditional cosmology, the *speed of light* *c* is a fundamental constant that remained unchanged during the big bang and in the first seconds of expansion of the universe. This assumption allows the determination of **Planck’s parameters** of the “big bang“, which are basic quantities of the standard model of cosmology (for an understanding of the true meaning of the Planck’s parameters see my discussion and derivations in Volume II, chapter 9.7). Without the derivation of these parameters, the concept of the “big bang“ would be meaningless, as it actually is, because the Planck’s parameters are a scientific “pulp fiction” produced by the empty brain cavities of present-day cosmologists and projected onto the infinite past.

And let us not forget that linear time is an illusion of the human mind and that there is no such thing as past, present and future, but that everything happens in the eternal Now, in the simultaneity of All-That-Is, so that one can reject the “big bang” hypothesis based entirely on this transcendental knowledge without further scientific ado.

According to the standard model, during the “big bang“ matter did not exist, at least, not in the form it is seen today. This would mean that the** constant B** did not exist: **B = 0**, and ** K_{CBR} = c/0 = improbable event** (mathematical operation not allowed). On the other hand, the CBR-constant determines the frequency of any emitted photon radiation for any temperature of matter, which is, in fact, a time quantity of the thermodynamic level of matter:

**. If we set for T the temperature of 2.73 K, we obtain exactly the**

_{ }*f**=*_{max}*K*_{CBR}× T**maximal frequency of CBR**, as is experimentally measured by COBE satellite (1):

_{ }*f** _{max}* =

*K*= 1.0345×10

_{CBR}×T_{CBR}^{11 }×2.73

*K*= 2.824×10

^{11}

This is a very powerful experimental evidence for the validity of the new cosmology of the Universal Law which all currently accepted hypotheses such as the inflation theory cannot render.

If we assume that matter did not exist at the beginning of the universe, then we must also accept that there has been no thermodynamic level during the “big bang“ and the short time thereafter. Therefore, the time of this level, the temperature, should not have existed either: *T = improbable event (non-existent)*. In this case, we obtain for the time (frequency) of the photon space-time the following logical result: _{ }

*f _{max }= improbable event ( K_{CBR}) × improbable event (T) = improbable event *

The above equation symbolizes the entire nonsense of the standard model.

If there has been no matter, there would have been no temperature and subsequently no photon space-time in terms of electromagnetic waves with the time (frequency) and velocity as observed today: * c = f λ = 0λ = 0*. The standard model postulates that

*c*was valid during the “big bang“ (see derivations of

**Planck‟s parameters**in Volume II, Chapter 9.7).

However, if there were no photon space-time, there would have been no radiation and thus no CBR as observed today. The assumptions of the standard model have not been challenged yet, only because the epistemological background of space-time, that is, of space and time, is not an object of interest in present-day physics and cosmology. This agnosticism is the origin of all the flaws in these sciences.

On the other hand, if we assume that the universe has evolved gradually by developing new levels, however, at time intervals that are infinite in relation to the estimated age of the universe, we can imagine similar conditions in black holes, neutron stars, quasars, pulsars and other similar material systems of gravitation (see Volume II, chapter 9.9), as suggested for the “bang bang“ and the short period of time thereafter. In this case, we need not extrapolate in the past, as is done in the standard model of present-day cosmology, but have to consider the **finite lifetimes of stars** in the context of the energy exchange between matter and photon space-time.

When the energy exchange from matter to photon space-time is perceived unilaterally as expansion that is going on into the future, one inevitably comes to the hypothesis of the “big bang“ when this process is traced back into the past. This false hypothesis follows from the idea that photon space-time is empty and homogeneous. This is the cardinal epistemological error of physics that engenders all the nonsense in cosmology.

The new Axiomatics clearly says that the *CBR-constant* is an absolute constant of the vertical energy exchange between the thermodynamic (kinetic) level of matter and the thermodynamic level of photon space-time as assessed by the new **Stankov’s law** **of photon thermodynamics** (Volume II, chapter 5.7), which is an application of the Universal Law. Thus the time *f* of the photon level depends on the time (temperature) of matter and vice versa: the temperature of matter depends on the frequency of the absorbed photons.

This mutual interdependence can be observed any time in daily life, e.g. the warming of metals by sunbeams and their subsequent radiation as heat. The frequency of the sunbeam photons depends only on the surface temperature of the sun (Volume II, equation (82)). Such phenomena are manifestations of the vertical energy exchange between matter and photons that takes place in both directions (conservation of action potentials).

The above equation of maximal frequency of CBR holds for any temperature. Black holes and neutron stars are known to have extremely high temperatures. When the frequency of the photons emitted by these gravitational systems is calculated with this equation, we obtain a cosmic background radiation in the *gamma range*. Such high frequency-CBR is regularly observed in astrophysics. Typically, this kind of CBR is not explained as a remnant of the big bang. This illustrates the ambiguity of current cosmological interpretations.

**The equation of the maximal frequency of CBR is a very useful application of the Universal Law,** with which we can determine the thermodynamic coefficients of vertical energy exchange of individual stars and other celestial bodies with photon space-time. In my next publication, I shall show in the next article that the **redshifts** in the **Doppler effect** can be used in the same way to determine the vertical energy exchange between individual systems of gravitation and photon space-time. With respect to the theory of relativity, these absolute coefficients can be also called “*relativistic coefficients of energy interaction*“. This is the only true explanation of the *general theory of relativity* of Einstein which he never understood.

This new correct interpretation of the observed redshifts in the universe eliminates the only experimental evidence that is currently used to prove the alleged validity of the “big bang” model of hot expanding universe.

*Sic transit imbecillitae dicendum est cosmologists*. (This is how the imbecility of the cosmologists goes by.)

**Notes:**

**1.** *COBE Science Working Group*, Spectrum of the cosmic background radiation, in P.J.E. Peeble, Principles of Physical Cosmology, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1993, p. 132.