**Georgi Stankov, April 1, 2017**

In my previous publications on the *SI system* I proved unequivocally that the *physical world = space-time = All-That-Is* has only two dimensions – **space** and **time**. I did this by showing that all the other *SI dimensions* (*quantities*) and their corresponding *units* can be derived from the two constituents of space-time when their current definitions are properly translated into mathematical language, which physicists have failed to do since the inception of this science when Galilei first measured gravitation.

In this article I will discuss the **Doppler effect** and will explain why this ubiquitous effect as presented in *wave theory* is the universal manifestation and proof for the reciprocity of space and time.

I dealt with this issue already when I explained how the *SI units* for *space (distance)* and *conventional time (t = 1/f = reciprocal frequency*) are derived from the **speed of light** **c** of a *reference photon system*.

*c* = λ *f* = [*1d-space*]* f = *[*1d-space-time*]_{p}

Therefore, the two constituents of space-time **cannot** be separated in real terms because they are **canonically conjugated**. The equation of the *speed of light*** c = λ f** is intrinsic to any measurement of photon

*frequency*and

*wavelength*. Neither wavelength, nor frequency, can be regarded as a distinct entity – they both behave

**reciprocally**and can only be expressed in terms of space-time, which is how human mind perceives energy with its limited senses. This knowledge is also basic to the new Gnosis of the Universal Law.

The wavelength and frequency of photons are the actual quantities of the two constituents, *space* and *time*, of this particular level of space-time. The measurement of any particular *length* [1*d-space*] or *time f* = *1/t* in the physical world is, in fact, an indirect comparison with the actual quantities of space and time of a *photon system of reference*. The introduction of the SI system obscures this fact and that is why I have eliminated it in the new theory of the Universal Law.

At the same time I have proved in volume II, section 4. on wave theory and throughout the book that all systems and levels of space-time are **superimposed wave systems **that interact according to the **laws of constructive and destructive interference**, also defined in the new Gnosis as the Laws of Creation and Destruction. That is why they can be formalistically defined as **U-sets.** An U-set is a set that contains the Whole = Energy =Space-Time as an element and this is the theoretical, physical foundation of the current holographic model on earth as a distorted replication (mirror image) of the multiverse. This definition is done within mathematics which, itself, is the only *method of definition and measurement* of any physical quantity as I have explained with respect to the SI system.

All physical quantities are abstract mathematical ideas that are first created in the human mind and only then projected onto the surrounding physical world in a secondary manner when an experiment is performed. All physical experiments and their measurements, which should be reliable and reproducible, are based on the use of the SI system. This is basic physical knowledge and should be shared by everyone with a modicum of physical education from school.

The observation of Doppler effect in all wave systems which are in motion (all systems of All-That-Is are in motion) is an universal phenomenon because **it is the manifestation of the reciprocal character of space and time**. Since matter and photon space-time are of wave character, as I have proved in my previous publication where I derived the **mass of matter** from the** mass of the basic photon** by employing the **Compton frequencies** of the elementary particles (see also Table 1), the Doppler effect is the universal verification of this fundamental property of the primary term. This I have deduced in an axiomatic way from our consciousness in the new Physical and Mathematical Axiomatics of the Universal Law.

The Doppler effect is fairly simple to understand:

When a wave source and a receiver are moving relative to each other, the frequency observed by the receiver is not the same as that of the source. When they are moving towards each other, the observed frequency is greater than the source frequency; when they are moving away from each other, the observed frequency is less than the source frequency. This is the essence of the **Doppler effect**.

What is the interpretation of the Doppler effect in the light of the Universal Law? Let us consider the medium that is confined by the wave source and the receiver as a distinct system of constant space-time. For didactic purposes, we choose an electromagnetic wave, that is, we have a system of photon space-time, although our elaboration holds in any other medium. The space-time of the photon system is determined by the distance between the wave source and the receiver which is [*1d-space*]-quantity.

As long as the wave source and the receiver are not moving, the space of the photon system as measured by the distance is constant. In this case, the space-time of the system is also constant. This is also true for the *time f* = 1*/t = reciprocal conventional time t *of the photon system, which is the complementary constituent to *space*. Indeed, the observed frequency is constant when the distance to the receiver remains constant.

When the wave source and the receiver are moving towards each other, the space of the photon system decreases. In this case, it is irrelevant which one of them is responsible for this relative change of distance. As the space-time of the photon system that is confined by the wave source and the receiver is constant, its time (frequency) *f* should increase in a reciprocal manner. This relative change is observed by the receiver as an increase in the frequency of the emitted electromagnetic wave:

when **[ 1d-space] →0**, then

**, because**

*f→*∞**.**

*f*= 1/[*1d-space*]When this phenomenon is observed for the visible light, the relative change of frequency is called **violetshift**.

When the wave source and the receiver are moving away from each other, the distance between them increases. In this case, the space of the photon system increases and its time decreases in a reciprocal way:

when **[ 1d-space] →∞, **then

**f→****0**, because

**[**

*1d-space*] = 1/

**f**.This change in the frequency is called **redshift** when observed for the visible light.

As we see, the reciprocity of space and time that is assessed by the Doppler effect can be adequately expressed with the number “1“. The Doppler effect is usually summarized by the following equation (1):

*f′* = [(*1±u _{r }/*v) : (

*1±u*v)]

_{s }/*f*=

_{o}*SP(A)f*

_{o}where ** u_{r }** is the

*speed of the receiver*relative to the space-time of the photon system (medium) and

**is the**

*u*_{s}*speed of the source*relative to the space-time of the photon system.

The above equation says that the relative change in wave frequency** f′/ f_{o} = SP(A) = time** is a dimensionless number (time relationship) belonging to the

**continuum**also defined in the new theory of the Universal law as the

*n = SP(A),***statistical probability of the event A,**

**SP(A)**. Both terms are identical descriptions of the

**primary term**of human consciousness

*Energy =Space-Time*within mathematics according to the primary axiom of the new Physical and Mathematical Axiomatics of the Universal Law.

This is the essence of physics and mathematics: all we can do in these disciplines is to build relationships between [*1d-space*]-, *f-*, or [*nd-space-time*]-quantities of selected systems of space-time and to obtain dimensionless numbers belonging to the continuum *n*.

The Doppler effect is basic to the new explanation of gravitation which I shall present in the next publication. Until now conventional physics is unable to explain how gravitation exerts its force at a distance and this is one of the major fallacies of this natural science. For this reason gravitation cannot be integrated with the other three fundamental forces in the standard model. This shows how deficient this science truly is and why the physicists have failed to recognize the existence of the Universal Law much earlier. In the new theory I integrate gravitation with the other three forces as already shown in my previous article and also illustrated on one page in Table 1.

**Notes:**

1. For further information see the standard derivations of Doppler effect in PA Tipler textbook on Physics.